On December 30, 1906, a group of Muslim leaders gathered in Dhaka and proposed a political association for the Muslims of India, with three aims: to protect Muslim interests, to counter Congress influences, and to support the British administration. The first meeting of this proposed entity, named the All India Muslim League happened in Karachi on December 20th, 1907. The next decades of Muslim League in Indian nationalist politics can only be described as tumultuous - as it tried to work with, against, the All India National Congress and the British. It trained, groomed and gave a platform to generations of Muslim leaders on local, national and international arenas. But, even as the party and its ideologies gained significance in the Indian nationalist scene, it had to go through various evolutions in its struggle to unite dueling agendas and hopes for the millions of Muslims in India.
To truly understand its impact, one would have to examine the intellectual history of the Muslim League from Syed Ahmed Khan to the two partitions - the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh. This history of the Muslim League is of particular relevance in todayâ€šÃ„Ã´s world. The oft-heard refrain about the lack of democracy and democratic practices in the Muslim world deserves a sustained critique through this 100 year history of charted and documented practice of Muslim democracy in India
When I went through my schooling in Lahore during the 80s, we had extensive lesson plans on the All India Muslim League; we had to memorize the various resolutions and recite the points of various planning committees. All this, in practical terms, was to answer the inevitable essay question on our state board exam: Explain the Ideology of Pakistan in light of the Two Nation Theory? Ask me now to tell you what is the Ideology of Pakistan and I will recite the mantra, Pakistan ka Matlab Kiya? La Illaha Illal Lah [What does Pakistan mean? No God but One]. The ideology of Pakistan, in Zia ul Haqâ€šÃ„Ã´s Pakistan, was Islam. The narrative history of this ideology was in every history and social studies textbook post-1977 and part of every politician and leaderâ€šÃ„Ã´s arsenal.
This officially sanctioned ideology of Pakistan is historically, teleologically, and dare I say, divinely determined. There are no divergent paths, or counter-memories in this narrative. In this particular past, selections from the history of Muslim League exist merely to fulfill the prophecy of Pakistan. The lives and events intertwined in the history of the League appear only as counterpoints to the All India National Congress in this teleology and then only to prove the over-arching truism: Hindus and Muslims were always two nations in India. Take, for example, this quote from a social studies textbook:
For more than ten centuries since 711 A D Muslims, Hindus and followers of Jainism and Buddhism lived together but remained distinct in all imaginable ways of living, culture, religion and creed. It would be distortion of history to say that Indian subcontinent was and had been a cultural unity or its people lived according to agreed social codes. In his book â€šÃ„ÃºIndiaâ€šÃ„Ã¹, (1888) Sir John Strachey observed â€šÃ„ÃºThis is the first and most essential thing to learn about India-that there is not, and never was an Indiaâ€šÃ„Ã¹.
As early as in the beginning of the 11th century, Al-Biruni observed that Hindus differed from the Muslims in all matters and habits. The speech made by Quaid-i-Azam at Minto Park, Lahore on March 22, 1940 was very similar to Al-Biruni's thesis in theme and tone. In this speech, he stated that Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, with different social customs and literature. The only difference between the writing of Al-Biruni and the speech of Quaid-i-Azam was that Al-Biruni made calculated predictions, while Quaid-i-Azam had history behind him to support his argument.
Note the emphatic claim to truth employed here. It may be quite easy to â€šÃ„Ãºhistoricallyâ€šÃ„Ã¹ disprove the claims in the quote - or, even in Jinnahâ€šÃ„Ã´s Two Nation Theory - and to highlight, instead, the interdependencies and interconnectedness of Muslims and Hindus through centuries of cohabitation on the subcontinent. But the veracity of â€šÃ„Ãºhistorical truthsâ€šÃ„Ã¹ is besides the point. To engage with the history implicit in this quote is to give in to the telos of Pakistan â€šÃ„Ã¬ to imagine only a future with Pakistan or without Pakistan. Such a history already forecloses all other pasts, and all other futures.
We are forced to confront another overly-determined future at the moment: the clash of civilizations, the Reformation of Islam, the telos of Terror. Since it reflects our presents just as much as those pasts, how then, does one write a history of political Islam in South Asia? We can, for example, take a cue from Paul Ricoeur, who reminds us: "Knowing that people of the past formulated expectations, predictions, desires, fears, and projects is to fracture historical determinism by retrospectively reintroducing contingency into history.â€šÃ„Ã¹ Hence, for us to consider the history and legacy of All India Muslim League is to ask of ourselves: how do we conceive of this past differently. What is the legacy of the All India Muslim League outside the teleology of Pakistan? What motivations, rivalries and alliances prompted the creation, propagation and demise of the All India Muslim League around the subcontinent during the past hundred years; what has been its role in the making of the nations and polities of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh; what pasts did it engender, what present did it bring into existence and what futures did it imagine? And, most importantly, what memories did it leave behind? As historians, we have to inhabit the past of 1906 â€šÃ„Ã¬ so as to imagine the futures from 1906. To prospect, and not retrospect.
With those concerns, we held a colloquium at the University of Chicago on November 4th, 2006 to note and reflect on the creation of the Muslim League, a hundred years, thence. Invited were prominent scholars of the intellectual and political history of South Asia: David Gilmartin, David Lelyveld, I. A. Zilli, Sumit Sarkar, and Tanika Sarkar. We also invited graduate students who are currently working on aspects of the history of Islam in South Asia[and Muslim League]: Jane Menon, Venkat Dhulipala, Maya Tudor and Eric Beverley.
The colloquium brilliantly captured those alternative futures that we were hoping to stress. The presentations by I. A. Zilli on Shibli Naumani and David Gilmartin on British Common Law and the League were truly remarkable. But, for me, the keynote address by Naim Sahib, A Sentimental Essay in Three Scene, was the highlight of the whole colloquium. You can watch and listen to these sessions here.
There is hope that we will continue this examination of the history of Muslim League with the construction of a Digital Archive. I am working on the prototype and hope to have more news on that front in the new year.
Fantastic stuff, thanks!
[...] Ask me now to tell you what is the Ideology of Pakistan and I will recite the mantra, Pakistan ka Matlab Kiya? La Illaha Illal Lah [What does Pakistan mean? No God but One]. The ideology of Pakistan, in Zia ul Haq s Pakistan, was Islam. … – more – [...]
Fascinating, particularly Gilmartin's paper. I have always been curious about the speed at which the League was dismantled in India after independendce. 28 members of the League actually joined the Indian Constituent Assembly, but Chaudhary Khaliquzzaman, the leader, defects to Pakistan. Some others like Z.H. Lari eventually leave and finally Begum Azizaz Rasul leads the remaining members into the Congress. Azad in his biography gives the picture of a leaderless League running around in confusion. I would love to know of insider accounts of the same period.
Fascinating piece! I will definitely dig into the colloquium material. I myself have been trying to understand the development of the TNT and the concept of Pakistan - but I have looking at it with reference to the main leaders and as a socio-political phenomenon. But after reading your post, I realised that viewing it thorough the evolution of the ML would provide an interesting narrative too. Of course, the evolution of the ML itself would be a compelling investigation on it's on. I will definitely keep an eye out for any more posts from you on the topic. Nice stuff!
C.M. Naeem states The chief leaders of the Pakistan movement were not obscurantist mullahs; they were in fact some of the most "modernist" Muslims of their time. They also belonged to an elite section of the community which had its own motive of self-preservation. Their veneer of modernism hid a basically exploitative nature, concerned with obtaining privileges, not equal rights. In a most blatant fashion they used the emotional attachment of the Muslim masses to religion for their own ends. Alas, its so true
Sepoy: this is one of your best; superb stuff (but then, you get that a lot, don't you? :-))
Yes its very true for all of us to pass cheap comments on our leaders but if some of us is being sent in those days then we will understand why they decide for partition we people had learn only to pin point but never feel shame of it but my self i respect them from the bottom of my heart. Pakistan Zindabad, and why all brtish came there do we have any idea coz of our irresponsiblities ,discremnation etc
I would love to read Gilmartin's and Menon's papers from the colloquium. Pl. let me know how to access them.
I just wanted to say thank you. This helped me greatly with my history paper and it's very detailed information. It was utterly fascinating and it was great. Thanks again.
The chief leaders of the Pakistan movement were not obscurantist mullahs; they were in fact some of the most “modernist” Muslims of their time. They also belonged to an elite section of the community which had its own motive of self-preservation. Their veneer of modernism hid a basically exploitative nature, concerned with obtaining privileges, not equal rights. In a most blatant fashion they used the emotional attachment of the Muslim masses to religion for their own ends.
@samran wat was their own end??? Can u explain me? All they did was just for us.. Quaid-e-Azam's monthly income was in hundreds as a lawer but when he became governer general his pay was just 1rupee liaqat ali khan was a Nawab in india with lots of land but when he came to pak he didnt got even a single piece of land here... Kindly think n study before posting any thing!!!
The formation of AIML was a major landmark in the history of modern India. The first formal entry of a centrally organized political party exclusively for Muslims had the following objectives: * To promote among the Muslims of India, feelings of loyalty to the British Government, and remove any misconception that may arise as to the instruction of Government with regard to any of its measures. * To protect and advance the political rights and interests of Muslims of India, and to respectfully represent their needs and aspirations to the Government. * To prevent the rise among the Muslims of India of any feeling of hostility towards other communities without prejudice to the afore-mentioned objects of the League.
thanks,,,,,,,,it was fantastic and thanks to ALLAH ALLMIGHTY that he grant me with this knowledge at this age 15